ADAM STYLE FURNITURE - This is the British
neoclassical style that predominated from about 1760 to 1790. It
was established by architect Robert Adam and his brother, James.
Its characteristics are slender, graceful lines, refined shapes,
and restrained ornamentation.
ART DECO FURNITURE - This furniture style
was derived from an historic Paris exposition in 1925 that
celebrated the marriage of art and industry in rejection of Art
Nouveau. It introduced simple, streamlined forms that were
interpreted in exotic woods and materials. American designers of
the 1930s took this look further, using asymmetry, arcs, sleek
lines, and geometric shapes not only in furniture, but also in
architecture and a wide range of household objects.
ART NOUVEAU FURNITURE- This style is based on the "new
art" of Europe in about 1875. Flowing, nearly freeform shapes
from nature were carved and painted on furniture. An elongated,
slightly curved line that ends in a more abrupt second curve is
its most characteristic design.
ARTS AND CRAFTS FURNITURE- This is a
furniture style and a movement that emerged in England toward the
end of the 19th century in reaction to the excesses of the
Victorian era and the Gay Nineties. Its craftsmanship has
deliberately simple shapes with exposed joinery and spare
ornamentation. William Morris and John Ruskin were among its
proponents in England.
FEDERAL FURNITURE- This American furniture style is
from 1780, following the Revolution, to 1830. It began by echoing the
neoclassical styles of such English masters as Adam, Hepplewhite and
Sheraton. It later took on influences from France. Duncan Phyfe is
among its most notable craftsmen. Federal style furniture is refined and
rectilinear, often with veneering and inlay. Brass feet and casters and
brass-ring drawer and door pulls are common.
GEORGIAN FURNITURE- Refers to furniture
styles that evolved during the long reign of England's three Georges, I,
II, and III, from 1714 to 1795. Popular motifs were eagles' heads and
claws, leaves, satyrs' masks, and lions' heads and claws.
VICTORIAN FURNITURE- This style was named
for England's Queen Victoria, who reigned from 1837 to 1901. This style
applied to English and American furniture of that time, particularly in
the mid-years of her reign. That furniture elaborates on Rococo and Louis
XV style, with exaggerated curves and size, lush upholstery, spools, and
carvings. A characteristic is horsehair cushioning.
MISSION STYLE FURNITURE- The Mission style grew out
of England’s late 19th Century Arts & Crafts movement, most closely
identified with philosopher/ designer William Morris (whose wallpaper and
fabric designs remain popular and in production). Morris and his
allies believed England’s Industrial Revolution was undermining not only
traditional craftsmanship, but the quality of everyday life. They struck
out against cheap materials, shoddy workmanship and the excessive
ornamentation of late Victorian furniture.
QUEEN ANNE FURNITURE- This style of furniture arose
in England during the reign of Queen Anne, from 1702 to 1714, in a break
from French influences. Walnut veneering was popular, and gentle, subtle
curves added grace. This period marked the development of secretaries and
china cupboards with serpentine arms, and soft, rounded frames and shapes.